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Chinese History - Han Dynasty 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE)

Han Dynasty:
Western Han 西漢 or Former Han 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE)
Wang Mang's 王莽 Xin Dynasty 新 (8-22 CE)
Eastern Han 東漢 or Later Han 後漢 (25-220 CE)

The Han dynasty 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) was the first long-lasting imperial dynasty of China. It was founded by the adventurer Liu Bang 劉邦 (Emperor Gaozu 漢高祖, r. 206-195 BCE) who took part in the rebellion against the oppressive government of the short-lived Qin dynasty 秦 (221-206 BCE).
The Han period is divided into the Former Han Qianhan 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE) and the Later Han Houhan 後漢 (25-220 CE) periods, or, in geographical terms, the Western Han Xihan 西漢 and the Eastern Han Donghan 東漢. During the Western Han the court resided in Chang'an 長安 (modern Xi'an 西安, Shaanxi), during the Eastern Han period in Luoyang 洛陽 (modern Luoyang, Henan). This pattern of shifting the capital because of political reasons is very similar to the Zhou 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE), Jin 晉 (265-420) and Song 宋 (960-1279) dynasties. Yet unlike these three dynasties, the change of place was not caused by military conflict, but was a politcal and economical decision taken after the usurpation by the mighty regent Wang Mang 王莽 who had founded the Xin Dynasty 新 (8-22 CE).
After centuries of political turmoil in the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE) and under the exploitative Qin rule, Liu Bang and his successors were able to create a stable government with an administrative apparatus taken over from the Qin, but enriched with the state doctrine of Confucianism. Several generations of rulers that were inclined to Daoism and Huang-Lao thought 黃老 and the proposition that the state goes best with a laissez-faire government. Emperor Wu 漢武帝 (r. 141-87 BCE) began a pro-activist policy of expansion and integrated southern China and the Western Territories 西域 (modern Xinjiang) into the Han empire. At the same time he initiated a stricter control over state finances, and revived the legalist policy of the Qin, with a strict registration of households and a tight control of the local governments through a censorial system (see yushi dafu 御史大夫). Under Emperor Wu's rule a National University (taixue) was founded where Confucian professors instructed students in the Confucian Classics. At that time, Confucianism was deeply influenced by apocryphal thought and the belief in magic and sorcery.
The reign of Emperor Wu was also a time when the families of imperial consorts (waiqi 外戚 "maternal relatives [of the emperor]") gained more and more power. Several generations of emperors were deeply influenced by the political power of their uncles. Wang Mang finally dethroned an infant emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty, called Xin "New".
Wang Mang tried to restructure the administrative system according to precedents of antiquity, but he bitterly failed. His rule ended in a large-scale peasant uprising, the first of its kind, called the Red Eyebrows 赤眉.
The restoration of the Han empire under Emperor Guangwu 漢光武帝 (r. 25-57 CE) suffered under the influence not only of consort clans, but more under their contest with the court eunuch factions (huanguan 宦官). In the provinces, large landowners were able to restrain the central government's control over the tax revenue. Two large peasant uprisings shook the foundations of the Later Han empire, namely the Yellow Turbans 黃巾 and the Five-Pecks-of-Grain Sect 五斗米道. The suppression of these uprisings was only possible with the help of mighty warlords that took over control of China's provinces. One of them, Dong Zhuo 董卓, seized the infant emperor and took control over the court. He was eliminated by the warlord Cao Cao 曹操 who was not able to reunite the empire. His son Cao Pi 曹丕 finally decided to found the Wei dynasty 曹魏 (220-265), as one of the Three Kingdoms 三國 (220-280) that ruled over China.
The foreign relations of the Han empire are foremost characterized by their relations with Central Asian peoples and states. The nomad federation of the Xiongnu 匈奴 was first appeased by presenting tributes and a princes (heqin 和親 "marriage for peace"), but Emperor Wu began to fight against the Xiongnu. Their power began finally waning in the 1st century CE. The Chinese colonized the Western Territories, where formerly a lot of different peoples had settles, among them the Tokharians, who spoke a Indo-European language. The many city states of the Western Territories were important tradeposts on the Silk Road (a modern term) along which Chinese silk was traded to Persia and the Near East. During the first century CE Buddhism arrived in China along the Silk Road, but also from the south, where Persian merchants landed in Canton. For many decades the Chinese had occupied the north of what is today northern Vietnam, and also some parts of Korea.

Sources:
Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書 (Encyclopedia Sinica): Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Chinese History), 3 vols. Hou Wailu 侯外廬 (et al.; ed.). Beijing: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, 1992.
Twitchett, Denis; Michael Loewe (ed.). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1, The Ch’in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. - A.D. 220. Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Shi Zhongwen 史仲文; Hu Xiaolin 胡曉林 (ed.). Baijuanben Zhongguo quanshi 百卷本中國全歷史 (Chinese History in 100 Volumes). Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1994.
Tan Qixiang 譚其驤 (ed.). Zhongguo lishi ditu ji 中國歷史地圖集 (The Historical Atlas of China), 8 vols. Beijing: Ditu chubanshe,1982.


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