Periods of Chinese History
The Jin dynasty 金 (1115-1234) was the second great "barbarian" dynasty ruling over northern China. It was founded by Wanyan Aguda 完顏阿骨打 (Emperor Taizu of the Jin 金太祖, r. 1115-1122), khan of the people of the Jurchens. The Jurchens were ancestors of the Manchus who later founded the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911).|
The court of the Song empire 宋 (960-1279) hoped to be able to use the military prowess of the "wild" Jurchens to conquer northern China that was occupied by the Liao empire 遼 (907-1125), a foundation of the proto-Mongolian federation of the Khitans. The Jin armies conquered the Liao empire but continued their campaign and in 1126 occupied the Song capital Kaifeng 開封 (modern Kaifeng, Henan). The Song court fled to the far southwest and established the Southern Song empire in Lin'an 臨安 (modern Hangzhou 杭州, Zhejiang). In 1142 the Jin Dynasty concluded a peace treaty with the Southern Song.
Like the Liao dynasty before, the Jin emperors quickly adopted the Chinese governmental system and employed Chinese officials in their government. Official documents were translated from Chinese to Jurchen, for which language a special script was developed. The Jurchen people was administered in a different mode than the Chinese and Khitans. There was never a consensus among the Jurchen elite to which degree the Jurchens should be allowed to adopt Chinese customs and culture, in order to avoid a thorough sinification of the conquest people.
Economical disasters and internal quarrels weakened the Jin empire. It fell victim to the Mongol conquest machine in 1234.
2000 ff. © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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